Course Descriptions: Arts & Sciences

Arts & Sciences

UNIV 010 Strategies for College Success (2 non-credit hours, traditional undergrad)
A course required of all students admitted conditionally. This course provides the college student with a variety of strategies for writing and reading at the college level, especially during the student’s first year.

UNIV 110 Attitudes & Strategies for Life (3 hours, CALL requirement)
A study of the issues related to living a successful and abundant life: decision making, prioritizing goals and actions based on the values each person holds, developing measurable strategies to accomplish them and understanding the attitudes which shape the journey of accomplishing goals, making decisions, and living the life God intended for each of us.

College English 1
Score of 17 or above on the English section of the ACT or
Score of 450 or above on the English section of the SAT or
Score of 4 or above on the sample writing required of non-traditional students or Successful completion of English Language Basics

English Language Basics Concurrent with College English
Score of 14-16 on the English section of the ACT or
Score of 400-449 or above on the English section of the SAT or
Score of 3 or above on the sample writing required of non-traditional students

English Language Basics
Score of less than 14 on the English section of the ACT or
Score of less than 400 on the English section of the SAT or
Score of less than 3 on the sample writing required of non-traditional students


English

ENGL 011 Basic English (3 non-credit hours)
A course required of those who test below the acceptable level for ENGL 110. Class sessions involve discussion of grammar principles and completion of printed and computerized exercises.

ENGL 110 College English 1 (3 hours)
A general composition course enabling students to practice communicating in appropriate and effective forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. Emphasis is placed on writing from different patterns of development with supplemental material covering grammar and research. Prerequisite: Satisfactory performance on a placement test of successful completion of ENGL 011.

ENGL 111 College English 2 (3 hours)
A companion course to ENGL 110 covering additional patterns of development and writing situations. A major research project forms a part of the requirements. Also, attention is given to literary analysis. Prerequisite: ENGL 110 or its equivalent.

ENGL 115 College Writing (3 hours) (CALL English prerequisite requirement)
A general composition course enabling students to practice communicating in appropriate and effective forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. Emphasis is placed on writing from different patterns of development with supplemental material covering grammar.

ENGL 116 Research & Writing (3 hours) (CALL English requirement)
This course will introduce students to the skills necessary for success in professional research and writing. Specific attention will be given to research skills and the writing skills necessary to present the results of one’s research.

ENGL 160 Desktop Publishing (2 hours)
A survey of computer-aided publishing with emphasis on layout, construction of effective publications, the printing process, and scanned images and graphics.

ENGL 218 The Literature of C. S. Lewis
This course serves as an introduction to the life and writing of C. S. Lewis. A brief survey of his life is used to provide a context for reading and examining four works, selected to represent the variety of types of writing for which he is known. The class sessions will involve discussion and application of his writing. In addition, we will be watching two films, one focused on his life and one that is an adaptation of one of his works.

ENGL 220 Survey of Multicultural Literature (3 hours)
A thematic survey of contemporary literature from authors of different ethnicities. Attention is given both to literary forms and to social, philosophical, and religious meaning in the texts. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 221 Theological Ethics in the Novel (3 hours)
An introduction to several 20th and 21st century Christian writers who work in a variety of genres. Among the writers usually included are Shusaku Endo, Graham Greene, and Flannery O’Connor. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 222 Introduction to Short Fiction (3 hours)
A survey course stressing critical analysis of a wide variety of short stories written by 19th and 20th century authors from around the world. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 230 Shakespeare (3 hours)
A study of seven or eight representative histories, tragedies, and comedies, as well as attention to the life, times, and influence of William Shakespeare, providing a basis for understanding and appreciating the playwright’s prominence in Western literature. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL Theological Themes in Film (3 hours)
An introduction to film study through selected works from various periods, concentrating on the past twenty years. Focus is on understanding and applying such themes as the existence and nature of God, Jesus, prayer, salvation, heaven and hell, and angels. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 240 Introduction to Poetry (3 hours)
A survey course acquainting students with a variety of poetic forms. Special attention is given to language, sound, rhythm, imagery, interpretation, and writing about literature. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 250 Creative Writing: Non-Fiction (3 hours)
A survey course examining various types of inspirational and expository writing. Students will produce these types, including personal experience stories, personality profiles, devotional writing, editorial writing, and historical/Biblical narratives. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 251 Creative Writing: Poetry, Fiction, and Drama (3 hours)
A survey course studying and producing the three basic writing forms mentioned in the course title. The course will also examine uses and markets for these forms. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 260 Applied Journalism: Video Production (3 hours)
A lab course introducing video production skills. The course provides experience in video camera operation and editing skills as well as script development and realization. Weekly projects will contribute to development of a larger production. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 261 Applied Journalism: Publication in Print and Online (3 hours)
A lab course introducing a variety of skills used by those in the communication arts field. The course will provide instruction and hands-on experience in writing, editing, and designing journalistic material for both print and online formats. Students will produce a weekly newspaper in both formats. [Students who have completed the course successfully may enroll for the course in another semester as ENGL 361. Students registered at that level will be expected to take on additional responsibilities.] Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents. Recommended: ENGL 160 or equivalent.

ENGL 262 Live Sound & Recording (1 hour)
A lab course providing an overview of theoretical principles and current trends in audio technologies used in production and in performance and worship environments. The course also considers developing and administering a volunteer team. Students will be involved in hands-on activities and event applications. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 263 Lighting & Staging (1 hour)
A lab course providing an overview of theoretical principles and current trends in lighting technologies used in production and in performance and worship environments. The course also considers developing and administering a volunteer team. Students will be involved in hands-on activities and event applications. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 264 Web & Graphic Design (1 hour)
A lab course providing an overview of theoretical principles and current trends in visual media, including online applications. The course also considers developing and administering a volunteer team. Students will be involved in hands-on activities and practical applications. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 310 English for Teaching and Editing (3 hours)
An advanced grammar course focusing on understanding, applying, and communicating the rules of English usage. Application sections deal with techniques for editing and preparation of instructional material, including those for speakers of English as a second language. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 321 19th and 20th Century Women Writers (3 hours)
An examination of selected works of various authors. In addition to examining the literature, students will investigate how the lives, cultures, and philosophical perspectives of the authors influenced their writing. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111, ENGL 220 or their equivalents.

ENGL 330 Survey of Dramatic Literature (3 hours)
A period literature survey (from ancient Greece to contemporary America) with discussion of theater practices and theatrical figures as well as textual meaning. Emphasis is placed on student participation through responses to texts and presentation of period studies and semester projects. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111, ENGL 220 or their equivalents.

ENGL 335 Drama Production and Performance (2 hours)
A survey course leading students step by step through the elements of drama production, from selecting material through cast selection and training to performance. Emphasis will be placed on developing skills and building a drama program in a school or church. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 360 Internet and Social Media Marketing (3 hours)
A study of the basic principles of marketing applied to the growing fields of internet and social media marketing. Topics covered in this course will focus on the interpretation of data on internet usage, online advertising, email marketing, social network marketing, search engine marketing, and web traffic analysis.

ENGL 370 Journalism and Public Relations (3 hours)
A survey course designed to equip students for work in three aspects of public relations: institutional identity, media/public contact, and internal organizational communication. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111 or their equivalents.

ENGL 380 Literary Theory and Criticism (3 hours)
An introduction to the major trends in twentieth-century literary theory and criticism: Russian Formalism, New Criticism, Reader-Oriented Criticism, Structuralism, Post-Structuralism, Deconstruction, Psychoanalytic Criticism, Feminism, Marxism, New Historicism, and Cultural Studies (Post-Colonialism, African-American Criticism, and Queer Theory). Additionally, students will gain experience in apply principles and methods of literary scholarship. Prerequisites: ENGL 110, ENGL 111, ENGL 220 or their equivalents.

ENGL 395 Communication Arts internship (2 hours)
An on-field experience in which the student will have opportunities to develop specific communication skills (i.e., writing, editing, production, drama ministry, public relations, etc.). The internship will typically occur after completion of approximately half of the requirements in the Communication Arts program. In special circumstances, additional hours may be added to the internship. Prerequisites: GEN 110, GEN 111 or their equivalents and advisor approval.


History

HIST 110 Ancient Near Eastern History (3 hours)
An overview of the political and cultural character of ancient near Eastern peoples from Persia to the Mediterranean and from Egypt to Anatolia, from Sumer to Alexander.

HIST 120 Classical Greek and Roman History (3 hours)
An analysis of the early Greeks, their classical and Hellenistic expression, followed by Rome’s republic, revolution, empire, and fall; the emergence of the Byzantine east.

HIST 140 US History 1 (3 hours)
A survey of United States history from its colonial beginnings to the Civil War, emphasizing social and political factors in the development of the country.

HIST 141 US History 2 (3 hours)
A survey of United States history from the conclusion of the Civil War to the present, emphasizing political and social influences.

HIST 145 American Civil War Experience (3 hours)
An overview of the events leading up to the American Civil War, including the war itself, and looking at the conditions of life for soldiers in the war. Examines the political, military, constitutional, economic, and social events affiliated with the Civil War.

HIST 150 Modern World History (3 hours)
A survey of world events, issues, and movement from the Renaissance to the present. Emphasis will be placed on both understanding the elements within their own context and considering their impact on later periods.

HIST 220 History of Christianity in the Western World (4 hours)
A survey of Christianity from its origins to the present, placed in the context of western civilization. Political and social influences receive special attention.

HIST 230 History of the Restoration Movement (3 hours)
A survey of the Restoration Movement identifying the leading thoughts and figures that have contributed to this movement. Political, theological, and social influences upon this movement will receive special attention

HIST 350 Researching History & the Social Sciences (3 hours)
A course designed to introduce students of history and the social sciences to the basic skills required for academic research, interpretation, and writing. While historical inquiry will be the primary discipline used for developing these skills, additional disciplines will also be explored with the goal of providing students with a broader range of understanding as to how research and interpretation are accomplished.


Language

LANG 110 Spanish 1 (3 hours)
An introduction to the Spanish language providing a foundation for ongoing language learning and equipping students with basic knowledge of the language. Emphasis is placed on basic grammar and vocabulary with primary focus on simple conversation.

LANG 111 Spanish 2 (3 hours)
A continuation of the study of Spanish language and culture. In addition to working to increase understanding of conversation and grammatical structures, students are introduced to short reading passages and begin developing writing skills. Prerequisite: LANG 110 or its equivalent.

LANG 210 Spanish 3 (3 hours)
A course designed to build proficiency in the use of Spanish. Emphasis is placed on more advanced grammar and more meaningful conversation. Prerequisite: LANG 111 or its equivalent.

LANG 211 Spanish 4 (3 hours)
A course creating an environment in which students communicate in more complex Spanish sentences. Emphasis is also placed on reading comprehension and writing skills. Prerequisite: LANG 210 or its equivalent.

LANG 120 French 1 (3 hours)
An introduction to the French language providing a foundation for ongoing language learning and equipping students with basic knowledge of the language. Emphasis is placed on basic grammar and vocabulary with primary focus on simple conversation.

LANG 121 French 2 (3 hours)
A continuation of the study of French language and culture. In addition to working to increase understanding of conversation and grammatical structures, students are introduced to short reading passages and begin developing writing skills. Prerequisite: LANG 120 or its equivalent.

LANG 220 French 3 (3 hours)
A course designed to build proficiency in the use of French. Emphasis is placed on more advanced grammar and more meaningful conversation. Prerequisite: LANG 121 or its equivalent.

LANG 221 French 4 (3 hours)
A course creating an environment in which students communicate in more complex French sentences. Emphasis is also placed on reading comprehension and writing skills. Prerequisite: LANG 220 or its equivalent.

LANG 130 German 1 (3 hours)
An introduction to the German language providing a foundation for ongoing language learning and equipping students with basic knowledge of the language. Emphasis is placed on basic grammar and vocabulary with primary focus on simple conversation.

LANG 131 German 2 (3 hours)
A continuation of the study of German language and culture. In addition to working to increase understanding of conversation and grammatical structures, students are introduced to short reading passages and begin developing writing skills. Prerequisite: LANG 130 or its equivalent.

LANG 230 German 3 (3 hours)
A course designed to build proficiency in the use of German. Emphasis is placed on more advanced grammar and more meaningful conversation. Prerequisite: LANG 131 or its equivalent.

LANG 231 German 4 (3 hours)
A course creating an environment in which students communicate in more complex German sentences. Emphasis is also placed on reading comprehension and writing skills. Prerequisite: LANG 230 or its equivalent.


Math

MATH 010 Developmental Math (3 non-credit hours)
Required of those assigned based on test scores. This course is designed to strengthen a student’s computational skills. Topics include operations with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and proportions, and their practical applications.

MATH 110 Problem Solving and Number Systems (3 hours)
Number systems and their properties; elements of number theory and an algorithmic approach to arithmetic operations using integers; data collection and introductory statistics; and probability. Emphasis on problem solving. Prerequisite: Satisfactory performance on a placement examination or successful completion of MATH 010.

MATH 120 Geometry and Measurement (3 hours)
Inductive and deductive reasoning; sets; the study of two- and three-dimensional geometry; transformations, the coordinate plane; and measurement with standard and nonstandard units. Prerequisite: Satisfactory performance on a placement examination or successful completion of MATH 010.

MATH 130 Mathematics for Business
Coverage of general mathematics as applied in the business environment. Key topics include banking, payroll, discounts, markups, taxes, insurance, financial statements, and statistics.

MATH 210 Pre-Calculus (3 hours)
A course covering algebra concepts ranging from polynomial, rational, and exponential functions to conic sections and trigonometry concepts such as sines and cosines. Students will also consider some analytic geometry and calculus concepts. Prerequisite: Satisfactory performance on a placement examination or successful completion of MATH 010.

MATH 230 College Algebra (3 hours)
A study of algebraic expressions, equations, inequalities, relations, functions and graphs, polynomial and rational functions, systems of linear equations and inequalities, complex numbers, and matrices and determinants. A wide range of applications will be included. Prerequisite: Satisfactory performance on a placement examination or successful completion of MATH 010.

MATH 240 Statistics (3 hours)
A study in the application of statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis in psychological research and business decision-making. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, probability distributions, sampling, and interval estimation. Common statistical software will be used to analyze and interpret data. Prerequisite: Satisfactory performance on a placement examination or successful completion of MATH 010.


Philosophy

PHIL 210 Introduction to Philosophy (3 hours)
An introduction to the topics of truth, knowledge, reality, and ethics, aimed at providing a foundation in philosophy for the study of Christian apologetics and theology.

PHIL 220 World Religions (3 hours)
An introductory study in the beliefs and practices of the major contemporary non-Christian religions.

PHIL 230 Critical Thinking (3 hours)
A basic introduction to the principles and practice of logic, both deductive and inductive, including a survey of informal fallacies, for the purpose of improving communication and recognizing valid arguments.

PHIL 240 Political Theories (3 hours)
An introduction to political theories, aimed at providing a foundation in politics for the study of justice, law, and civic responsibility.

PHIL 340 Survey of World Views (3 hours)
An introduction to basic elements of differing world views (perspectives of reality which are often taken for granted) discussing the big questions of life from various philosophical perspectives. The goal is to help students develop their own cohesive and functional views of reality within a Christian learning environment.


Pre-Law

PLAW 200 Introduction to the Legal System (3 hours)
An introduction to the basic concepts and structure of the American Legal System, its historical development, and the procedural and substantive elements that contribute to courtroom intrigue.

PLAW 210 Introduction to Constitutional Law (3 hours)
An introduction to the basic concepts in American constitutional law, its historical development, and techniques of constitutional interpretation and practical application.

PLAW 330 Business Law (3 hours)
A course spanning the broad realm of the most current law in the areas of contract formation, negotiable instruments, sales, leases, warranties, business organizations, creditor/debtor rights, employment discrimination, and environmental law.

PLAW 350 Non-Profit Law (3 hours)
A survey course navigating through the varied challenges in operations and government compliance experienced by today’s religious institutions, public charities, private foundations, and educational, business, and social organizations committed to providing community services through a non-profit structure.


Science

NSCI 200 Principles of Scientific Discovery
This course is a basic introduction to the history, philosophy and methods of natural science.  Special focus is given to the steps of the scientific method and the process by which scientists develop and confirm theories. Students also explore what separates scientific inquiry from other disciplines such as theology.

NSCI 210 Geology 1 (3 hours)
An overview of sedimentary geological materials, processes, and history in the context of nature as creation, involving lectures and a field trip to Mammoth Cave and Cumberland Falls (required).

NSCI 211 Geology 2 (3 hours)
A study of the work of ice and winds as agents of sculpture on a planet whose crust is affected by volcanism, mountains, oceans, metamorphism, ore and mineral genesis, and earthquakes, highlighted by a field trip to Lake James and Michigan (required).

NSCI 215 Dangerous Earth (3 hours)
This course investigates the ways in which the dynamic natural processes of this planet affect our society including geologic hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, flooding, and coastal erosion. Emphasis will be placed on the geology of northern Kentucky and southwestern Ohio, and the ways in which geologic conditions and geologic processes influence our lives.

NSCI 220 Biology (3 hours)
An introductory study in the basics of biology, focusing on human organ systems. Through a variety of experiences, students will learn general life processes and how these apply to the world in which we live.

NSCI 230 Chemistry (3 hours)
An introductory study of the fundamental principles of general chemistry through lectures and labs. Introduction to organic chemistry, food chemistry, and chemistry of household products and medications are included. The relationship of chemistry to daily lives is emphasized.

NSCI 240 Physics (3 hours)
An introduction to fundamental principles and processes of the physical world using various forms of mathematics. The course will include discussion of such topics as mechanics, gases/liquids/solids, heat, vibrations and waves, light, electricity, and magnetism.


Speech

SPCH 110 Public Speaking (3 hours)
An introductory public speaking course designed to help students become informed and effective communicators and receivers of communication. It provides instruction and practice in research, organization of information, logical thinking, persuasion, and oral presentation.

SPCH 220 Advanced Communication (3 hours)
An advanced course concentrating on interpersonal and intercultural communication intended to acquaint students with both theory and practice in the varied world of communication among individuals of similar and different backgrounds. Prerequisite: SPCH 110.


Deaf Studies

DEAF 100 Ministry with Deaf People (1 hour)
An evaluation of personal fitness in attitude and signing skills and the mechanics of establishing a congregational ministry with deaf people.

DEAF 101 Beginning American Sign Language 1 (3 hours)
An introductory course in American Sign Language developing knowledge in ASL vocabulary, cultural aspects, grammatical features, and beginning conversational comprehensive and expressive skills.

DEAF 102 Beginning American Sign Language 2 (3 hours)
A continuation of DEAF 101 with additional work in each area. Prerequisite: DEAF 101.


Sociology

SOCI 110 Introductory Sociology (3 hours)
An overview of significant theories and issues in the study of human social behavior. Special attention will be given to ways in which sociological theory may be applied in Christian life and ministry.

SOCI 115 Cultural Studies in Public Life
This introductory sociology course provides an overview of the major theoretical perspectives and issues in the study of society with an emphasis on a Christian understanding of the field and using the sociological perspective to better understand and respond to our world.

SOCI 200 Public Theology
This is an introductory course in Public Theology and thus will focus on the broad biblical imperative to, as Jeremiah has it, “seek the welfare of the city.” This task is undertaken through exegetical analysis of a range of biblical texts performed in the context of contemporary social issues (such as Economics, Ecology, Justice, Gender/Sexuality, Power, Violence) with a view to establishing the norms of a redemptive dialogue. With that in view, the course further helps students to grasp the evangelistic impact of allowing the character of God to make contact with society’s concerns.

SOCI 210 People, Places, & Cultures of the World (3 hours)
A course designed to get students thinking about the complex and dynamic relationships among people, places, and cultures of the world. The class will address how the Christian self fits within the complexities of human relationships (local, national, and international) in order to best operationalize the Great Commission. Other topics include globalization, homogenization, and diversification as they apply to the ever-changing landscape of today’s world.

SOCI 220 Practical Anthropology and Lab (3 hours)
An introduction to the concepts and tools needed to gain a working understanding of other cultures: their worldviews, languages, customs, and social structures. The course involves a field laboratory in which students will use what they have learned to study specific cultures first hand.

SOCI 230 Dynamics of World Cities (3 hours)
A survey of the world’s largest cities, factors which lead to growing urbanization, and the cultural and sociological features of urban environments compared to rural ones.


Graduate History

HIST 520 Survey of Church History (3 hours)
A survey course in church history from the time of the apostles to the present. Designed for those students who have not yet had such a course, the emphasis will be on major developments in church history: the early and medieval periods, development of the papacy, Protestant Reformation, and developments in the modern period. (Also Offered Online)

HIST 530 History of the Restoration Movement (3 hours)
A study of the background, inauguration, and development of the Stone-Campbell movement, focusing on the concern for the development of Christian unity, the restoration of New Testament authority, and the need to balance these two with an applicable concept of Christian liberty in the area of non-essentials. (Also Offered Online)

HIST 551 Historical Perspective on the Church’s Global Mission (3 hours)
A survey of the mission work of the church from Paul’s journeys to today including dates, events, people, and policies at major milestones, studied in a way that helps the student understand and formulate present-day strategies. Primary attention is given to the modern mission movement of the past two centuries. (Cross-listed with Urban/Intercultural Studies)

HIST 560 Early Church History (3 hours)
A study of the history of the early church in the first six centuries, carrying the story down to the pontificate of Gregory the Great. Special attention will be given to how certain problems within the church gave rise to developments that created an institution radically different from that pictured in the New Testament.

HIST 561 Medieval Church History (3 hours)
A study of the history of the church from the pontificate of Gregory the Great down to the beginning of the Renaissance (600-1300). Special attention will be given to the development of monasticism, church-state conflicts, and nationalism.

HIST 562 The Church in the Renaissance (3 hours)
A study of the church from 1300-1500. Special emphases will include the Avignon Papacy, Conciliarism, reform movements among dissidents, and the corruption in the late fifteenth-century papacy.

HIST 563 Ecumenical Councils (3 hours)
A survey course in church history using the twenty-one general councils of Roman Catholicism as the framework. Each council will be examined in depth and its issues and theological formulations placed in historical context.

HIST 570 The Protestant Reformation (3 hours)
A study of the church from 1500 to 1650, with special attention both to the major reformers and to how the sociopolitical situation in various countries channeled the Reformation in those countries.

HIST 571 The Church in Modern Europe (3 hours)
A study of the church in Europe from 1650 to the present. Special attention will be given to forces of evangelical renewal and religious toleration as well as to sociopolitical and theological developments.

HIST 572 United States Religious History (3 hours)
An examination of religion in the United States from the settling of the continent to the present. Though other religious traditions may receive passing attention, the centrality of Christianity in the United States will be the primary focus of this class. Special attention will be given to colonial religion, religious liberty, revivalism, evangelism, theological trends, social and political influences on religion, and the significant figures of United States religious history.

HIST 601 Seminar in Church History (3 hours)
Various topics in church history will be studied in a seminar format.

HIST 790 Directed Study in Church History (1-3 hours)
Directed readings in the history of the church on various topics with individual selections to be determined by agreement between the professor and the student. A variety of specializations can be worked out, including (a) Patristics, (b) Medieval Christianity, (c) Renaissance Studies, (d) Protestant Reformation Era, (e) Post- Reformation Europe, (f) American Church History, (g) Puritanism, (h) Revivalism, and (i) Restoration Movement.

HIST 799 Thesis in Church History (3 hours)